Moderate Endurance Training and MitoQ Improve Cardiovascular Function, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Hypertensive Individuals: The Role of miR-21 and miR-222: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Clinical Trial
Iranian Exercise Physiology and Fitness
Yaser Masoumi-Ardakani 1, 2 Hamid Najafipour 3 Hamid Reza Nasri 3 Soheil Aminizadeh 1 Shirin Jafari 3 Zohreh Safi 4
۱ Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
۲ Student Research Committee, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
۳ Cardiovascular Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
۴ Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Objective: Hypertension (HTN) is among the leading causes of myocardial infarction, stroke, and kidney disease. The
MitoQ supplement is a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant that attenuates the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). miRNAs play an essential role in the pathophysiology of HTN. Regular aerobic exercise is recommended to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to evaluate the effects of MitoQ supplementation and moderate endurance training (ET), alone and in combination, on cardiac function, blood pressure, the circulatory levels of miRNA-21 and miRNA-222, and oxidative status in individuals with HTN.
Materials and Methods: In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial (except for ET group), 52 male hypertensive subjects (40-55 years old) were randomly divided into four groups (n=13): Placebo, MitoQ (20 mg/day, oral), ET (Cycle ergometer, moderate intensity, 40-60% VO2 peak, three sessions/week for six weeks), and MitoQ+ET. Cardiac echocardiography indices, serum oxidative and inflammation status, and miRNAs 21 and 222 were assessed before and after interventions.
Results: Left ventricular mass [effect size (ES): -6.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): -11.2 to -1.4] and end-systolic/
diastolic diameters significantly improved in the intervention groups (ES: -0.05, 95% CI: -0.11 to 0.00 and -0.09, 95% CI:
-۰٫۱۶ to -0.02). Total serum antioxidant capacity (TAC) increased (ES: 36.0, 95% CI: 26.1 to 45.8), and malondialdehyde (MDA) (ES: -0.43, 95% CI: -0.53 to -0.32), IL-6 (ES: -1.6, 95% CI: -1.98 to -1.25), miR-21 (ES: -0.48, 95% CI: -0.61 to -0.35), and miR-222 (ES: -0.31, 95% CI: -0.44 to -0.18) significantly decreased in response to ET, MitoQ, and their combination.
Conclusion: MitoQ and ET, individually and more pronouncedly in combination, can improve cardiovascular health in people with high blood pressure (BP) by reducing inflammation and increasing antioxidant defense, in association with reduction in circulatory miR-21 and miR-222 levels (registration number: IRCT20190228042870N1).
Endurance, Training Hypertension, miR-21, miR-222, MitoQ, Exercise Physiology