Mehdi Hakimi 1 , Marefat Siahkouhian 1 , * , Lotfali Bolboli 1 and Dariush Sheikholeslami Vatani 2
۱ Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
۲ Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
Journal of Clinical Research in Paramedical Sciences
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of 8 weeks of resistance and endurance training with vitamin D3 supplementation on blood pressure, resting heart rate, and body composition in obese hypertensive middle-aged men.
Methods: Sixty-three obese hypertensive men (age = 39.85 ± ۲٫۸ years; BMI = 31.6 ± ۱٫۴ kg/m2) volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly divided into six groups: resistance training with vitamin D3 (R + D, n = 11), resistance training with placebo (R + P, n = 12), endurance training with vitamin D3 (E + D, n = 9), endurance training with placebo (E + P, n = 11), vitamin D3 alone (D, n = 10), and control with no intervention (C, n = 10). The training protocol consisted of endurance and resistance training three times a week for 8 weeks. The supplementation groups consumed 3000 IU of vitamin D3 daily, and the placebo groups ingested the same amount of maltodextrin.
Results: The training groups showed a significant decrease in the post-test fat mass, resting heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with the pre-test values. Also, the fat-free mass significantly increased only in the R + D and R + P groups. No significant changes were observed in the C and D groups. Moreover, there were significant differences between the groups in the post-test fat mass and systolic blood pressure in favor of the E + D group.
Conclusions: Although endurance and resistance training with vitamin D3 supplementation improved the body composition, resting heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the reduction in the systolic blood pressure and body fat mass was significantly higher in the E + D group.
Keywords: Blood Pressure; Heart Rate; Resistance Training; Endurance Training; Vitamin D